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Research on the possibility of reducing vibration and decreasing roughness of the machine surface using blade tool made of super-hard materials

Data 26 may 2017 
Ap. B-607 

Research on the possibility of reducing vibration and decreasing roughness of the machine surface using blade tool made of super-hard materials


In a machining operation , which is carried out with a cutting tool, the surface roughness of machined parts is one of the most important characteristics of product quality. Surface roughness significantly affects the performance characteristics such as wear resistance, fatigue strength, the ability to distribute and conduct lubrication, heat transfer, corrosion resistance, etc. Thus, improving the roughness during machining is one of the main objectives, the achievement of which is a priority.

The design of the cutting tool and machine, material of the tool and workpiece and cutting conditions significantly affect the surface roughness and vibration. Acceptable choice of tool design with high stiffness and damping ability under the appropriate cutting conditions leads to a reduction in vibration of the cutting tool relative to the workpiece, and hence improves the surface roughness. One way to reduce the dynamic motion between cutting tool and workpiece is to increase the rigidity of the cutting tool with a passive damping element built into the holder. The principle of passive control is to convert the vibrating energy into other forms due to damping.

The characteristics of cutting tools depend on materials used in their design. These materials should provide a high rigidity of the structure and at the same time reduce the vibrations during machining by dissipating energy. Consequently, these materials must have a high damping ability, rigidity, elasticity and low coefficient of thermal expansion. At present, composites such as epoxy granite are generally used as a substitute for cast irons and steel in tool and machine designs where higher stiffness, strength and damping are required.

This work includes studies of the effect of epoxy granite on improving the damping ability of the cutting tool during machining. A new cutting tool filled with epoxy granite is designed and compared with a conventional cutting tool. The influence of cutting parameters, design of cutting tools and cutting inserts from superhard materials on roughness and vibration was investigated. The work also presents the application of the L9 orthogonal matrix of the Taguchi method for experimental planning, determination of optimal cutting conditions and the effect of each cutting parameter on surface roughness and vibration. As a result, it has been obtained that the new design of the cutting tool filled with the epoxy granite has reduced vibration and surface roughness due to the heterogeneous structure of the tool holder and high damping capacity of epoxy granite.

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